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These companies would receive incentives, such as tax exemptions ricna infrastructural assistance, in return for providing jobs for the local population. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers. Organizing Changes in the Puerto Rican economy altered the relationship between the worker and the economy. The depression had devastating effects on the island, creating widespread hunger and unemployment that lasted for over a decade.
The result was that the artisan class developed a more defensive attitude, not only toward industrial capitalism, but also toward the political influences that American companies exercised on the island.
Interviews with Antonia Pantoja and Esperanza Martell examine the role of Puerto Rican women in political organizations in New York pierto the s through the s. Industrialization and Women in the Workforce Traditionally, agriculture formed the base of the Puerto Rican economy.
Cocco de Filippis reviews the work of Dominican author Julia Alvarez. As changes in the economy took place, women ed their male partners in the struggle to improve working conditions. Reproductive Issues Though female workers were active participants puergo the labor movement alongside male workers, primarily women bore the brunt of the coercive and discriminatory reproductive restrictions championed by American industrialists and social workers.
They worked as seamstresses for low wages.
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This policy, though seemingly based on scientific principles, was based on a set of stereotypes about Puerto Ricans that characterized them as racially inferior and unable to make their own decisions about their fertility. Operation Bootstrap InPuerho Rico elected its first governor. Many banks could not continue to operate. Luis A.
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Organized workers used newsletters and newspapers as tools of information and empowerment. As part of his New Deal efforts to restore economic stability, President Roosevelt created the Puerto Rican Reconstruction Administration PRRAwhich provided for agricultural development, public works, and electrification of the island.
Thus, women were active participants in and puerrto members of the labor movement from the very beginning. Additionally, women continued to participate in the labor movement, protesting for equal wages and better treatment. Roosevelt also criticized the employment system of those factories. A focus on mass production undermined the quality-oriented mode of production of the artisans.
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American companies and government officials recognized that working women were necessary for increased industrialization. Centro de Estudios Puertoriquenos Bulletinv2 n7 Win This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. Women strikers, however, did not always behave within the bounds of traditional gender norms. Though Cuba achieved nominal independence inin Puerto Rico assumed the status of an American territory, which afforded Puerto Ricans U.
Inwith the support of American industrialists, scientists, social workers, and middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans influenced by neo-Malthusian arguments supporting widespread birth control, public health officials decided to put into effect a plan to control the birth rate on the island.
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American control brought large corporations and new modes of factory production, which displaced the traditional workshops settings and artisanal apprenticeships. Vazquez, Blanca, Ed. For instance, the introduction of large-scale agriculture produced opportunities for some women to work as cigar strippers. In addition, after the United States took control of the island, workers saw bbabes opportunity to labor organizations such as the American Federation of Labor.
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The "Portfolio" section highlights female Puerto Rican visual artists living and working in New York. Farmers fell into pyerto. When American forces occupied the island inthe Puerto Rican economy and politics underwent a shift that had implications for labor relations. 68801 to the nature of the American companies that participated in the plan, women were recruited to work these new jobs, such as those in the garment industry.
Ricaan other instances, the local government fostered the migration of Puerto Ricans to the U. This improved infrastructure helped to bolster the Puerto Rican economic situation and relieve some of the devastation from Hot mom online depression. In addition, candidates who were challenging the sitting government denounced the discriminatory nature of these public policies.
During this increasing industrialization, women took on a more prominent role in the new economy.
Thus, it is important to continue to reflect upon the profound ways in which gender influenced the relationship between these workers and the economic system. In these jobs, women often functioned as the main or co-provider in their households and continued to confound the myth of the male breadwinner. The demands in the needle industry forced women to leave their homes and work in factories. Thus, it is not surprising that women ed the labor movement along with their male partners as a way to resist economic exploitation.
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Workers from the tobacco and sugar plantations formed gremios, or guilds, which are considered the first attempts at labor organizations. Ortiz concentrates on migration experiences and the contributions of Puerto Pureto women to the early New York community.
Jimenez de Wagenheimin Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during babed nineteenth century. Thus, the administration set about educating the population about birth control, and encouraging surgical sterilization. The labor movement in Puerto Rico organized as a political party and adopted socialist ideology to balance the power of U.